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We distinguished five gender/age groups: boys, nonreproductive females, reproductive people, and you may cubs

We distinguished five gender/age groups: boys, nonreproductive females, reproductive people, and you may cubs

I understood individual jaguars considering book put patterns (Silver mais aussi al. 2004). Cubs incorporated definitely younger and you may teenage someone registered which have adult women. We categorized women due to the fact reproductive when they was in fact filed that have cubs any kind of time section into the data season, and also as nonreproductive, when they was never recorded with cubs. I handled presence off cubs as the a target standards to own research regarding breeding. Category out of breeding or non was held lingering for the entire study period. Even though simplistic, we feel it group warranted by the enough time reproductive years away from female jaguars (we.elizabeth., 3 months pregnancy and you will 17 days care of cubs) and long (3–cuatro many years) time for you to earliest breeding (Crawshaw and you may Quigley 1991; De Paula mais aussi al. 2013). We make the assumption you to reproductive females maintain the territories getting long stretches (i.elizabeth., years) and you will one short-label knowledge (i.elizabeth., dropping cubs) won’t changes its territory dimensions. In addition, we generally recorded earlier cubs (>90 days dated), which could possess endured this new assumed very early peak in teenager mortality reported various other large carnivores (Jedrzejewska mais aussi al. 1996; Palo). The new character process are did of the two authors separately (MFP and you may MA) and affirmed by a third (WJ). Unidentifiable catches had been excluded out of next analyses. For just take-recapture habits, i defined daily testing hours such that i believed only 1 grab on a daily basis for every single pitfall, we.age., binomial identification records (Royle et al. 2009; Goldberg ainsi que al. 2015).

People density estimate having mature jaguars

I used limitation possibilities SCR activities inside the secr dos.10.3 R bundle (Efford ainsi que al. 2004, 2009; Borchers and you may Efford 2008; Efford 2016) to help you guess jaguar densities. These hierarchical patterns describe (1) a beneficial spatial make of the fresh new shipments off animal activity centers and you will (2) a beneficial spatial observation model relevant the likelihood of finding just one at a certain trap with the point regarding the animal’s hobby cardio (Efford 2004). For the observance model, i made use of a risk half of-regular identification function:

Gender of adult somebody is actually influenced by the brand new exposure/lack of testicles or nipples or other reproductive signs

where ? 0 represents the baseline detection probability at an individual’s activity center, ? defines the shape of the decline in detection away from the activity center and can be interpreted in terms of the animal movement distribution, and d specifies the distance between a detector (camera trap) and the activity center (Efford et al. 2009; Efford 2016). This detection model implies a Binomial distribution of detections of an individual at a particular detector (Efford and Fewster 2013; Royle et al. 2014). We used a 15-km buffer around the study area to include the activity centers of any individuals that pling. We checked the adequacy of the buffer size by examining likelihoods and estimates from models with larger buffers. We applied full likelihood models with three sex/reproductive status groups (adult males, adult reproductive females, and adult nonreproductive females) and six shorter sessions as covariates (Borchers and Efford 2008). By doing this, we also fulfilled the assumptions of the closed population model in analyzing our long dataset. We fit models with all possible additive combinations of sex/reproductive status groups and sessions as covariates on density (D), ? 0 , and ?. For density, we always used sex/female reproductive state as a covariate to provide an estimate of population structure and did not consider intercept-only models. We assessed how D, ? 0 , and ? differed across sessions and sex/reproductive status groups and how this variation influenced the overall density estimate. We evaluated models with AICc (corrected Akaike information criterion) and AICc weights (Hurvich and Tsai 1989; Wagenmakers and Farrell 2004). To test the effect of study duration on estimates of all parameters, we compared models that included session covariates in the parameters D, ? 0 , and ? (corresponding to the situation when model parameters were estimated based on separate sessions, as in short-term studies) with the best model that did not include any session covariates.

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